PhD Defence: “Resilient IoT-based Monitoring System for the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry”, Safuriyawu Ahmed, amphi est, bâtiment des humanités, 16th of December 2022 at 10 AM

The defense will take place on Friday 16th December at 10 AM in the est amphi of the Humanities building, Insa-Lyon, Villeurbanne.



Resilient IoT-based Monitoring System for the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry




Pipeline failures in crude oil transportation occur due to ageing infrastructure, third-party interferences, equipment defects and naturally occurring failures. Consequently, hydrocarbons are released into the environment resulting in environmental pollution, ecological degradation, and unprecedented loss of lives and revenue. Hence, multiple leakage detection and monitoring systems (LDMS) are employed to mitigate such failures. More recently, these LDMS include Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Internet of Things (IoT)-based systems. While they are proven more efficient than other LDMS, many challenges exist in their adoption for pipeline monitoring. These include fault tolerance, energy consumption, accuracy in leakage detection and localisation, and high false alarms, to cite a few.

Therefore, our work seeks to address some of these challenges in implementing IoT-based systems for crude oil pipelines in a resilient end-to-end manner. Specifically, we consider the aspect of accurate leakage detection and localisation by introducing a unique node placement strategy based on fluid propagation for sensitive and multi-sized leakage detection. We also propose a new distributed leakage detection technique (HyDiLLEch) in the WSN layer. It is based on a fusion of existing leakage detection techniques such as the negative pressure wave method, gradient-based method, and pressure point analysis. With HyDiLLEch, we efficiently eliminate single points of failure.

Furthermore, we implement fault-tolerant data and service management in the fog layer utilising the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) pipeline network as a use case. The problem is modelled as a regionalised data-driven game against nature on the NNPC pipelines. Our proposed regionalised solution (R-MDP) using reinforcement learning optimises accuracy and fault tolerance while minimising energy consumption.

Overall, our system guarantees resiliency to failures and efficiency in terms of detection and localisation accuracy and energy consumption.



  • Stolf, Patricia, Professeur des Universités, Université de Toulouse, Rapporteure
  • Guidec, Frédéric, Professeur des Universités, Université Bretagne Sud, Rapporteur
  • Menaud, Jean-Marc, Professeur des Universités, IMT-Atlantique, Examinateur
  • Caron, Eddy, Maître de Conférences, ENS Lyon, Examinateur
  • Takruri-Rizk, Haifa, Professeur des Universités, University of Salford, Examinatrice
  • Silva, Bhagya Nathali, Senior Lecturer, University of SriJayawardenepura, Examinatrice
  • Le Mouël, Frédéric, Professeur des Universités, INSA Lyon, Directeur de thèse
  • Stouls, Nicolas, Maître de Conférences, INSA Lyon, Co-Directeur de thèse
  • Yusuf, Kabir, Docteur en gestion des ressources environnementales, PTDF/SAPZ, Invité

PhD Defence: “Contributions to the development of passive RFID tag-to-tag communications for the Internet of Things”, Tarik Lassouaoui, amphi ouest, batiment des humanités, 16th of December 2022 at 10 AM

The defense will take place on Friday 16th December at 10 AM in the west amphi of the Humanities building, Insa-Lyon, Villeurbanne.


Contributions to the development of passive RFID tag-to-tag communications for the Internet of Things


With the emergence of cognitive sensor networks, and in particular the IoT (Internet of Things), passive RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) UHF (Ultra High Frequency) technology is evolving with new functionalities. New types of applications going beyond the classics such as logistics, security and traceability are being developed. Still benefiting from unitary identification, new types of tags, called augmented tags, are appearing integrating new capacities such as environmental sensitivity, cognitive behaviour, data processing, communication between tags, etc. In this context, the objective of this thesis is to propose strategies and methods to optimize communications between tags, called tag-to-tag “tag-to-tag” (T2T) communications. This new type of radio link, between directly communicating tags, relies on the presence of an external radio frequency (RF) source and is based on the principle of retro-modulation. In particular, the scenarios analyzed are projected within the framework of the Spie ICS – INSA Lyon chair, which focuses on the IoT.

This thesis more specifically targets the application domain of UHF RFID for which the concept of T2T communications has been proposed and demonstrated since 2011, but with relatively little work done so far. In a T2T RFID system, two RFID tags (passive or semi- passive) communicate with each other directly without going through the reader. One of the tags plays the role of “reader tag”: in the presence of an RF source (for example an RFID reader) in its vicinity, it emits binary information by retro-modulation (or backscatter by switching charges), by switching the load seen by its antenna on two distinct impedances, thus reflecting two distinct power levels (modulation here considered in amplitude). The other tag plays the role of “receiver tag”: it receives the information transmitted and demodulates it.

In the traditional case of UHF RFID, the reader emits, in accordance with the standard, a modulated signal with a high modulation depth in order to facilitate the detection of the message transmitted by the tag. The tag responds by retro modulation and the signal it returns is then a signal where the two levels of information (in the case of amplitude modulation) are not very distinct and noisy. However, the player’s demodulator is very efficient, based on quadrature synchronous demodulation, it has very good sensitivity. In the case of T2T communication, a fundamental difference is that the detection is here performed by the second tag which is in the vicinity of the reader tag. Consequently, on the one hand, the performance of the receiver (that of a “simple” RFID tag) is much more limited, while the modulated signal is not necessarily at high modulation depth. And on the other hand, the two tags interact. This inter-tag electromagnetic coupling impacts in particular radiation patterns and impedances, and moreover, it depends on the mutual positions of the two tags, more precisely on their antennas (distance separating them, relative orientation, etc.), which leads to high variability the characteristics of the T2T system (and therefore its performance). In addition, there is the impact of the relative position of the external RF source with the pair of tags, which significantly modifies the characteristics of the retro-modulated signals.

The main challenge of the thesis is to determine a framework that can take into account all the factors (signal, component, circuit and system) impacting T2T communication with the aim of evaluating performance, particularly in terms of communication rate. binary error, a metric conventionally used in the field of telecommunications.

Keywords: Backscattering, passive tags, tag to tag communications, UHF RFID


  • Bergeret Emmanuel Professor Université Clermont Auvergne Reviewer
  • Breard Arnaud Professor Ecole Centrale de Lyon Examiner
  • Lepage Anne-Claire Associate Professor Telecom Paris Examiner
  • Lienard Martine Professor Université de Lille Examiner
  • Vena Arnaud Associate Professor HDR Université de Montpellier Reviewer
  • Villemaud Guillaume Associate Professor HDR INSA-Lyon Thesis director
  • Hutu Florin-Doru Associate Professor INSA-Lyon Co-director
  • Duroc Yvan Professor Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 Co-director